consecutive operators and brackets

I'm just trying to learn a bit of Perl and have come across this:

foreach $element (@{$records})
    do something;

To my newbie eyes, this reads: "for each element in an array named @{$records}, do something" but, since that seems an unlikely name for an array (with "@{$" altogether), I imagine it isn't that simple?

I've also come across "%$" used together. I know % signifies a hash and $ signifies a scalar but don't know what they mean together.

Can anyone shed any light on these?


In Perl you can have a reference (a pointer) to a data structure:

# an array
my @array;

# a reference to an array
my $ref = \@array;

When you have a reference to be able to use the array you need to dereference it

@{ $ref }

If you need to access an element as in


you can do the same with a reference


The curly brackets {} are optional and you can also use


but I personally find them less readable.

The same applies to every other type (as %$ for a hash reference).

See man perlref for the details and man perlreftut for a tutorial.


The arrow operator -> can also be used to dereference an array or an hash




See man perlop for details

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