Writing a string to the ouputstream of a socket

I am working on a project that adapts server-client architecture. Messages that are transferred between clients and the server are combinations of strings and byte arrays. I need to send the size of the whole message beforehand.

It is trivial to find the byte size of a byte array, however it is not so with strings. Obviously, I can convert those strings into byte arrays (taking encodings into consideration). But, these strings can be long and I don't want to allocate memory for copies of them (e.g. getBytes() allocates a new array).

My question is, what is the most memory efficient way of doing the following?

  1. Find byte size of a string (using UTF-8 encoding)
  2. Write that size to the output stream
  3. Write the string to the output stream


Iterate the string character by character. Call codePointAt() for each position to get its unicode code-point. Depending on the codepoint you can deduce how many bytes will be needed when encoded in UTF-8:

Codepoint range | UTF-8 bytes
0     - 127     |  1
128   - 2047    |  2
2048  - 65535   |  3
65536 +         |  4

But before you do that, you should first validate if this is really necessary. It is quite likely that a String passed to a socket is internally copied to a byte array anyway.

If the size is not a critical issue, use UTF16-BE encoding for strings. In this case the size will be string length * 2.

In this mode you can write Java characters one by one without a need to do additional processing (Unicode high-low surrogates etc).

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