Return (self) generated value from insert statement (no id, no returning)
sorry, if the question title is misleading or not accurate enough, but i didn't see how to ask it in one sentence.
Let's say we have a table where the PK is a String (numbers from '100,000' to '999,999', comma is for readability only). Let's also say, the PK is not sequentially used.
Now i want to insert a new row into the table using java.sql and show the PK of the inserted row to the User. Since the PK is not generated by default (e.g. insert values without the PK didn't work, something like generated_keys is not available in the given environment) i've seen two different approaches:
in two different statements, first find a possible next key, then try to insert (and expect that another transaction used the same key in the time between the two statements) - is it valid to retry until success or could any sql trick with transaction-settings/locks help here? how can i realize that in java.sql?
for me, that's a disappointing solution, because of the non-deterministic behaviour (perhaps you could convince me of the contrary), so i searched for another one:
insert with a nested select statement that looks up the next possible PK. looking up other answers on generating the PK myself I came close to a working solution with that statement (left out the casts from string to int):
INSERT INTO mytable (pk,othercolumns) VALUES( (SELECT MIN(empty_numbers.empty_number) FROM (SELECT t1.pk + 1 as empty_number FROM mytable t1 LEFT OUTER JOIN mytable t2 ON t1.pk + 1 = t2.pk WHERE t2.pk IS NULL AND t1.pk > 100000) as empty_numbers), othervalues);
that works like a charm and has (afaik) a more predictable and stable solution than my first approach, but: how can i possibly retrieve the generated PK from that statement? I've read that there is no way to return the inserted row (or any columns) directly and most of the google results i've found, point to returning generated keys - even though my key is generated, it's not generated by the DBMS directly, but by my statement.
Note, that the DBMS used in development is MSSQL 2008 and the productive system is currently a DB2 on AS/400 (don't know which version) so i have to stick close to SQL standards. i can't change the db-structure in any way (e.g. use generated keys, i'm not sure about stored procedures).
DB2 for i allows generated keys, stored procedures, user defined functions - pretty much all of the things SQL Server can do. The exact implementation is different, but that's what manuals are for :-) Ask your admin what version of IBM i they're running, then hit up the Infocenter for specifics.
The constraining factor is that you can't alter the database design; you are stuck with apparently multiple processes trying to INSERT while backfilling 'holes' in the existing keyspace. That's a very tough nut to crack. Because you can't change the DB design, there's nothing to be done except to allow for and handle PK collisions. There's no SQL trick that'll help - the SQL way is to have the DB generate the PK, not the application.
There are several alternatives to suggest, in the event that some change is allowed. All have issues needing a workaround, but that is unavoidable at this point due to the application design.
- Create a UDF that all INSERT clients use to retrieve the next available PK. Use a table of 'available numbers' and delete them as they are issued.
- Pre-INSERT all the available numbers. Force clients to do an UPDATE. Make them FETCH...FOR UPDATE where (rest of data = not populated). This will lock the row, avoiding collisions as well as make the PK immediately available.
- Leave the DB and the other application programs using this table as-is, but have your INSERT process draw from a block of keys that's been set aside for your use. Keep the next available number in an SQL SEQUENCE or an IBM i data area. This only works if there's a very large hole in the keyspace that's not yet used.