How do I run a rake task from Capistrano?

I already have a deploy.rb that can deploy my app on my production server.

My app contains a custom rake task (a .rake file in the lib/tasks directory).

I'd like to create a cap task that will remotely run that rake task.

Answers


A little bit more explicit, in your \config\deploy.rb, add outside any task or namespace:

namespace :rake do  
  desc "Run a task on a remote server."  
  # run like: cap staging rake:invoke task=a_certain_task  
  task :invoke do  
    run("cd #{deploy_to}/current; /usr/bin/env rake #{ENV['task']} RAILS_ENV=#{rails_env}")  
  end  
end

Then, from /rails_root/, you can run:

cap staging rake:invoke task=rebuild_table_abc

run("cd #{deploy_to}/current && /usr/bin/env rake `<task_name>` RAILS_ENV=production")

Found it with Google -- http://ananelson.com/said/on/2007/12/30/remote-rake-tasks-with-capistrano/

The RAILS_ENV=production was a gotcha -- I didn't think of it at first and couldn't figure out why the task wasn't doing anything.


...couple of years later...

Have a look at capistrano's rails plugin, you can see at https://github.com/capistrano/rails/blob/master/lib/capistrano/tasks/migrations.rake#L5-L14 it can look something like:

desc 'Runs rake db:migrate if migrations are set'
task :migrate => [:set_rails_env] do
  on primary fetch(:migration_role) do
    within release_path do
      with rails_env: fetch(:rails_env) do
        execute :rake, "db:migrate"
      end
    end
  end
end

Capistrano 3 Generic Version (run any rake task)

Building a generic version of Mirek Rusin's answer:

desc 'Invoke a rake command on the remote server'
task :invoke, [:command] => 'deploy:set_rails_env' do |task, args|
  on primary(:app) do
    within current_path do
      with :rails_env => fetch(:rails_env) do
        rake args[:command]
      end
    end
  end
end

Example usage: cap staging "invoke[db:migrate]"

Note that deploy:set_rails_env requires comes from the capistrano-rails gem


Use Capistrano-style rake invocations

There's a common way that'll "just work" with require 'bundler/capistrano' and other extensions that modify rake. This will also work with pre-production environments if you're using multistage. The gist? Use config vars if you can.

desc "Run the super-awesome rake task"
task :super_awesome do
  rake = fetch(:rake, 'rake')
  rails_env = fetch(:rails_env, 'production')

  run "cd '#{current_path}' && #{rake} super_awesome RAILS_ENV=#{rails_env}"
end

Use the capistrano-rake gem

Just install the gem without messing with custom capistrano recipes and execute desired rake tasks on remote servers like this:

cap production invoke:rake TASK=my:rake_task

Full Disclosure: I wrote it


I personally use in production a helper method like this:

def run_rake(task, options={}, &block)
  command = "cd #{latest_release} && /usr/bin/env bundle exec rake #{task}"
  run(command, options, &block)
end

That allows to run rake task similar to using the run (command) method.


NOTE: It is similar to what Duke proposed, but I:

  • use latest_release instead of current_release - from my experience it is more what you expect when running a rake command;
  • follow the naming convention of Rake and Capistrano (instead of: cmd -> task and rake -> run_rake)
  • don't set RAILS_ENV=#{rails_env} because the right place to set it is the default_run_options variable. E.g default_run_options[:env] = {'RAILS_ENV' => 'production'} # -> DRY!

There's an interesting gem cape that makes your rake tasks available as Capistrano tasks, so you can run them remotely. cape is well documented, but here's a short overview on how to set i up.

After installing the gem, just add this to your config/deploy.rb file.

# config/deploy.rb
require 'cape'
Cape do
  # Create Capistrano recipes for all Rake tasks.
  mirror_rake_tasks
end

Now, you can run all you rake tasks locally or remotely through cap.

As an added bonus, cape lets you set how you want to run your rake task locally and remotely (no more bundle exec rake), just add this to your config/deploy.rb file:

# Configure Cape to execute Rake via Bundler, both locally and remotely.
Cape.local_rake_executable  = '/usr/bin/env bundle exec rake'
Cape.remote_rake_executable = '/usr/bin/env bundle exec rake'

namespace :rake_task do
  task :invoke do
    if ENV['COMMAND'].to_s.strip == ''
      puts "USAGE: cap rake_task:invoke COMMAND='db:migrate'" 
    else
      run "cd #{current_path} && RAILS_ENV=production rake #{ENV['COMMAND']}"
    end
  end                           
end 

Here's what I put in my deploy.rb to simplify running rake tasks. It's a simple wrapper around capistrano's run() method.

def rake(cmd, options={}, &block)
  command = "cd #{current_release} && /usr/bin/env bundle exec rake #{cmd} RAILS_ENV=#{rails_env}"
  run(command, options, &block)
end

Then I just run any rake task like so:

rake 'app:compile:jammit'

This worked for me:

task :invoke, :command do |task, args|
  on roles(:app) do
    within current_path do
      with rails_env: fetch(:rails_env) do
        execute :rake, args[:command]
      end
    end
  end
end

Then simply run cap production "invoke[task_name]"


Most of it is from above answer with a minor enhancement to run any rake task from capistrano

Run any rake task from capistrano

$ cap rake -s rake_task=$rake_task

# Capfile     
task :rake do
  rake = fetch(:rake, 'rake')
  rails_env = fetch(:rails_env, 'production')

  run "cd '#{current_path}' && #{rake} #{rake_task} RAILS_ENV=#{rails_env}"
end

This also works:

run("cd #{release_path}/current && /usr/bin/rake <rake_task_name>", :env => {'RAILS_ENV' => rails_env})

More info: Capistrano Run


If you want to be able to pass multiple arguments try this (based on marinosbern's answer):

task :invoke, [:command] => 'deploy:set_rails_env' do |task, args|
  on primary(:app) do
    within current_path do
      with :rails_env => fetch(:rails_env) do
        execute :rake, "#{args.command}[#{args.extras.join(",")}]"
      end
    end
  end
end

Then you can run a task like so: cap production invoke["task","arg1","arg2"]


So I have been working on this. it seams to work well. However you need a formater to really take advantage of the code.

If you don't want to use a formatter just set the log level to to debug mode. These semas to h

SSHKit.config.output_verbosity = Logger::DEBUG

Cap Stuff

namespace :invoke do
  desc 'Run a bash task on a remote server. cap environment invoke:bash[\'ls -la\'] '
  task :bash, :execute do |_task, args|
    on roles(:app), in: :sequence do
      SSHKit.config.format = :supersimple
      execute args[:execute]
    end
  end

  desc 'Run a rake task on a remote server. cap environment invoke:rake[\'db:migrate\'] '
  task :rake, :task do |_task, args|
    on primary :app do
      within current_path do
        with rails_env: fetch(:rails_env) do
          SSHKit.config.format = :supersimple
          rake args[:task]
        end
      end
    end
  end
end

This is the formatter I built to work with the code above. It is based off the :textsimple built into the sshkit but it is not a bad way to invoke custom tasks. Oh this many not works with the newest version of sshkit gem. I know it works with 1.7.1. I say this because the master branch has changed the SSHKit::Command methods that are available.

module SSHKit
  module Formatter
    class SuperSimple < SSHKit::Formatter::Abstract
      def write(obj)
        case obj
        when SSHKit::Command    then write_command(obj)
        when SSHKit::LogMessage then write_log_message(obj)
        end
      end
      alias :<< :write

      private

      def write_command(command)
        unless command.started? && SSHKit.config.output_verbosity == Logger::DEBUG
          original_output << "Running #{String(command)} #{command.host.user ? "as #{command.host.user}@" : "on "}#{command.host}\n"
          if SSHKit.config.output_verbosity == Logger::DEBUG
            original_output << "Command: #{command.to_command}" + "\n"
          end
        end

        unless command.stdout.empty?
          command.stdout.lines.each do |line|
            original_output << line
            original_output << "\n" unless line[-1] == "\n"
          end
        end

        unless command.stderr.empty?
          command.stderr.lines.each do |line|
            original_output << line
            original_output << "\n" unless line[-1] == "\n"
          end
        end

      end

      def write_log_message(log_message)
        original_output << log_message.to_s + "\n"
      end
    end
  end
end

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