Is this code thread-safe?

Let's say we have a thread-safe compare-and-swap function like long CAS(long * Dest ,long Val ,long Cmp) which compares Dest and Cmp, copies Val to Dest if comparison is succesful and returns the original value of Dest atomically.

So I would like to ask you if the code below is thread-safe.

    long dummy = *DestVar;
    if(dummy == CAS(DestVar,Value,dummy) )


EDIT: Dest and Val parameters are the pointers to variables that created on the heap. InterlockedCompareExchange is an example to out CAS function.


Edit. An edit to the question means most of this isn't relevant. Still, I'll leave this as all the concerns in the C# case also carry to the C++ case, but the C++ case brings many more concerns as stated, so it's not entirely irrelevant.

Yes, but...

Assuming you mean that this CAS is atomic (which is the case with C# Interlocked.CompareExchange and with some things available to use in some C++ libraries) the it's thread-safe in and of itself.

However DestVar = Value could be thread-safe in and of itself too (it will be in C#, whether it is in C++ or not is implementation dependent).

In C# a write to an integer is guaranteed to be atomic. As such, doing DestVar = Value will not fail due to something happening in another thread. It's "thread-safe".

In C++ there are no such guarantees, but there are on some processors (in fact, let's just drop C++ for now, there's enough complexity when it comes to the stronger guarantees of C#, and C++ has all of those complexities and more when it comes to these sort of issues).

Now, the use of atomic CAS operations in themselves will always be "thead-safe", but this is not where the complexity of thread safety comes in. It's the thread-safety of combinations of operations that is important.

In your code, at each loop either the value will be atomically over-written, or it won't. In the case where it won't it'll try again and keep going until it does. It could end up spinning for a while, but it will eventually work.

And in doing so it will have exactly the same effect as simple assignment - including the possibility of messing with what's happening in another thread and causing a serious thread-related bug.

Take a look, for comparison, with the answer at Is this use of a static queue thread-safe? and the explanation of how it works. Note that in each case a CAS is either allowed to fail because its failure means another thread has done something "useful" or when it's checked for success more is done than just stopping the loop. It's combinations of CASs that each pay attention to the possible state caused by other operations that allow for lock-free wait-free code that is thread-safe.

And now we've done with that, note also that you couldn't port that directly to C++ (it depends on garbage collection to make some possible ABA scenarios of little consequence, with C++ there are situations where there could be memory leaks). It really does also matter which language you are talking about.

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