Generate a printable HMAC Shared key in .Net
I'm using HMACSHA512 to hash data using a shared key. Since the key is shared I'd like for it to be all printable characters for ease of transport. I'm wondering what the best approach is to generating these keys.
I'm currently using the GetBytes() method of RNGCryptoServiceProvider to generate a key, but the byte array it returns contains non-printable characters. So I'm wondering if it is secure to base64 encode the result or does that erode the randomness too much and make things much less secure? If that isn't a good approach can you suggest one?
I do understand that by limiting the keys to printable characters I am limiting the overall breadth of the key space (ie: lopping off 1 of the 8 bits), but I am OK with that.
If you can handle not auto-generating the key then http://www.grc.com/passwords is a good source of VERY random key material.
Base64 wouldn't reduce the underlying entropy of the byte array. You could generate the key and use it in its raw form, but Base64 encode it to transport it to where you need it to be. You'd then Base64 decode it back to the raw form before you use it in the new location. There is no loss of entropy in this operation. The Base64 encoding reduces the entropy to 6-bits per byte instead of 8, but the result of the coding is longer, so overall the entropy is the same.
The other way you could do it would be to get 24 random bytes for 192-bits worth of entropy. Base64 encoding this would give you a 32 character string (256-bits) which still has the original randomness and 192-bits of entropy. You could use this as your shared key directly.
BASE64 transforms a byte sequence so it uses only certain printable characters.
This transformation does not change the information in any way, just how it is stored. It is also reversible: you can get the original byte sequence by decoding the BASE64 output.
So using BASE64 does not "erode the randomness" or limit the key space in any way.