Decompression stops inbetween and output file filled with zeros(BLACK PIXELS)?

I am trying to apply DCT(discrete cosine transformation) compression on a bmp(bitmap) file. I have a c file which i am running in Turbo C++. This is not actually compressing but i was trying to implement the DCT and IDCT. The code is as follows:

/*
the image to be compressed is a bmp with 24 bpp and
with name "college4.bmp" of dimensions 200*160 ie 25*20- 8*8 blocks
o/p is college2.dat
format: 8 bit signed integers starting rowwise from 0,0 to 8,8
the coefficients order is blue,green,red
for the block no 1 then 2 and soon
*/

#include<stdlib.h>
#include<stdio.h>
#include<math.h>
#define WIDTH 25
#define HEIGHT 20

typedef struct {
    unsigned int type;
    unsigned long int filesize;
    unsigned int reserved1,reserved2;
    unsigned long int offset;
} BMPHEAD;

typedef struct {
    unsigned long int infosize;
    unsigned long int width,height;
    unsigned int planes,bitsperpixel;
    unsigned long int compression;
    unsigned long int sizeimage;
    long int xpelspermeter,ypelspermeter;
    unsigned long int colorused,colorimportant;
} INFOHEAD;

typedef struct {
    char rgbquad[4];
} colortable;

BMPHEAD bmphead;
INFOHEAD infohead;
FILE *bmp_fp1,*bmp_fp2;
int buf[WIDTH][8][8][3],buf1[WIDTH][8][8][3];
float pi=3.14159265,DCTcoeff[8][8][8][8];

void generatedctcoeff() {
    int y, i, j, x;
    for (i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
        for (j = 0; j < 8; j++) {
            for (x = 0; x < 8; x++) {
                for (y = 0; y < 8; y++) {
                    DCTcoeff[i][j][x][y] = cos(((2 * y + 1) * pi * j) / 16)
                            * cos(((2 * x + 1) * i * pi) / 16);
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

void outputtofile1() {                     // Write into college2.dat
    int i, j, x, y, blockno;              // One block at a time, buf contains pixel 
    int redcoef, greencoef, bluecoef;     // data of one row of blocks
    float gijred, gijgreen, gijblue, c, ci, cj;
    c = 1 / (sqrt(2));
    for (blockno = 0; blockno < WIDTH; blockno++) {
        for (i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
            for (j = 0; j < 8; j++) {
                gijred = 0;
                gijgreen = 0;
                gijblue = 0;
                for (x = 0; x < 8; x++) {
                    for (y = 0; y < 8; y++) {
                        gijblue = gijblue + DCTcoeff[i][j][x][y]
                                * buf[blockno][x][y][0];
                        gijgreen = gijgreen + DCTcoeff[i][j][x][y]
                                * buf[blockno][x][y][1];
                        gijred = gijred + DCTcoeff[i][j][x][y]
                                * buf[blockno][x][y][2];
                    }
                }
                ci = cj = 1.0;
                if (i == 0)
                    ci = c;
                if (j == 0)
                    cj = c;
                gijblue = ci * cj * gijblue / 4;
                gijgreen = ci * cj * gijgreen / 4;
                gijred = ci * cj * gijred / 4;
                bluecoef = (int) gijblue;
                greencoef = (int) gijgreen;
                redcoef = (int) gijred;
                fprintf(bmp_fp2, "%d %d %d ", bluecoef, greencoef, redcoef);
            }
        }
    } /* end of one block processing */
}

void compressimage() {
    int rowcount,x,y;
    bmp_fp1=fopen("college4.bmp","r");
    bmp_fp2=fopen("college2.dat","w");
    printf("generating coefficients...\n");
    generatedctcoeff();
    if(bmp_fp1==NULL) {
        printf("can't open");
        return;
    }
    printf("compressing....\n");
    fread(&bmphead,1,sizeof(bmphead),bmp_fp1);
    fread(&infohead,1,sizeof(infohead),bmp_fp1);
    fseek(bmp_fp1,bmphead.offset,SEEK_SET);
    for(rowcount=0;rowcount<HEIGHT;rowcount++) {
        for(y=0;y<8;y++) {
            for(x=0;x<infohead.width;x++) {
                buf[x/8][x%8][y][0]=(int)fgetc(bmp_fp1);
                buf[x/8][x%8][y][1]=(int)fgetc(bmp_fp1);
                buf[x/8][x%8][y][2]=(int)fgetc(bmp_fp1);
            }
        }
        outputtofile1();         //output contents of buf after dct to file
    }
    fclose(bmp_fp1);
    fclose(bmp_fp2);
}

void outputtofile2() {                                 //output buf to college3.bmp
    int i, j, x, y, blockno;                        // buf now contains coefficients
    float pxyred, pxygreen, pxyblue, c, ci, cj;     // a temp buffer buf1 used to 
    c = 1 / (sqrt(2));                              // store one row of block of
    for (blockno = 0; blockno < WIDTH; blockno++) { // decoded pixel values
        for (x = 0; x < 8; x++)
            for (y = 0; y < 8; y++) {
                pxyred = 0;
                pxygreen = 0;
                pxyblue = 0;
                for (j = 0; j < 8; j++) {
                    cj = 1.0;
                    if (j == 0)
                        cj = c;
                    for (i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
                        ci = 1.0;
                        if (i == 0)
                            ci = c;
                        pxyblue = pxyblue + ci * cj * DCTcoeff[i][j][y][x] * buf[blockno][i][j][0];
                        pxygreen = pxygreen + ci * cj
                        * DCTcoeff[i][j][y][x] * buf[blockno][i][j][1];
                        pxyred = pxyred + ci * cj * DCTcoeff[i][j][y][x] * buf[blockno][i][j][2];
                    }
                }
                pxyblue /= 4;
                pxygreen /= 4;
                pxyred /= 4;
                buf1[blockno][y][x][0] = pxyblue;
                buf1[blockno][y][x][1] = pxygreen;
                buf1[blockno][y][x][2] = pxyred;
            }
    }
    for (y = 0; y < 8; y++) {
        for (blockno = 0; blockno < WIDTH; blockno++)
            for (x = 0; x < 8; x++) {
                fprintf(bmp_fp2, "%c%c%c", (char) buf1[blockno][x][y][0],
                        (char) buf1[blockno][x][y][1],
                        (char) buf1[blockno][x][y][2]);
            }
    }
}

void uncompressimage() {
    int blue,green,red,rowcount,colcount,i,j;
    bmp_fp1=fopen("college2.dat","r");
    bmp_fp2=fopen("college3.bmp","w");
    printf("generating coefficients...\n");
    generatedctcoeff();
    if (bmp_fp1==NULL) {
        printf("open failed");
        return;
    }
    printf("uncompressing....\n");
    bmphead.type=0x4d42;
    bmphead.filesize=30518;
    bmphead.reserved1=0;
    bmphead.reserved2=0;
    bmphead.offset=sizeof(bmphead)+sizeof(infohead);
    infohead.infosize=sizeof(infohead);
    infohead.width=200;
    infohead.height=160;
    infohead.planes=1;
    infohead.bitsperpixel=24;
    infohead.compression=0;
    infohead.sizeimage=0;
    infohead.xpelspermeter=3780;
    infohead.ypelspermeter=3780;
    infohead.colorused=0;
    infohead.colorimportant=0;
    fwrite(&bmphead,sizeof(BMPHEAD),1,bmp_fp2);
    fwrite(&infohead,sizeof(INFOHEAD),1,bmp_fp2);
    for(rowcount=0;rowcount<HEIGHT;rowcount++) {
        for(colcount=0;colcount<WIDTH;colcount++) {
            for(i=0;i<8;i++) {
                for(j=0;j<8;j++) {
                    fscanf(bmp_fp1,"%d",&blue);
                    fscanf(bmp_fp1,"%d",&green);
                    fscanf(bmp_fp1,"%d",&red);
                    buf[colcount][i][j][0]=blue;
                    buf[colcount][i][j][1]=green;
                    buf[colcount][i][j][2]=red;
                }
            }
        }
        outputtofile2();
    }
    fclose(bmp_fp1);
    fclose(bmp_fp2);
}

int main() {
    printf("opening files...\n");
    compressimage();
    printf("opening files...again\n");
    uncompressimage();
    printf("successful decompression\nenter any key\n");
    return 0;
}

Here is the image i am using as input

(im srry the site converted the bmp into png. You may convert it back to bmp to use it) Here is the image that is generated:

The file college3.bmp that gets created is of size 200x160 and of 93.8 kB but till quarter of the image it has decoded the coefficients correctly but later the file is filled with black pixels. I have taken a screenshot of the o/p as it was saying not a valid bmp while uploading. I am sitting on this problem since feb,2004. If anyone can say me where there is a bug i would be very thankful. I have analysed the output file and found an EOF right at the place where the pixels are starting to be black. I read some other questions on the topic and found that the conversion factors ci,cj have been used improperly. While coding i had also got confused with the indices x,y,i and j. So i hope this problem i will solve in a few days.

Answers


Apparently, the problem in the above code is in how you open your files.

This is what should be in your code (note the explicitly specified open modes, binary and text):

void compressimage() {
...
    bmp_fp1=fopen("college4.bmp","rb");
    bmp_fp2=fopen("college2.dat","wt");
...
}

void uncompressimage() {
...
    bmp_fp1=fopen("college2.dat","rt");
    bmp_fp2=fopen("college3.bmp","wb");
...
}

With that and slightly altered structure definitions:

#pragma pack(push,1)

typedef struct {
    unsigned short int type;
    unsigned long int filesize;
    unsigned short int reserved1,reserved2;
    unsigned long int offset;
} BMPHEAD;

typedef struct {
    unsigned long int infosize;
    unsigned long int width,height;
    unsigned short int planes,bitsperpixel;
    unsigned long int compression;
    unsigned long int sizeimage;
    long int xpelspermeter,ypelspermeter;
    unsigned long int colorused,colorimportant;
} INFOHEAD;

typedef struct {
    char rgbquad[4];
} colortable;

#pragma pack(pop)

I'm able to compile your program successfully using 3 different compilers (Turbo C++, Open Watcom, gcc) and get the desired output picture.


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