Thread synchronizing: shared resources and actions with different resource number demand

I have the following task:

There is a pool of equivalent resources (e.g. input slots) and a set of actions to be performed with this pool.

Each action is executed in a separate thread.

Each action requires different number of input slots available.

I want to use something like semaphores for the following task:

All action threads are executed simultaneously

The action is performed when the required number of input slots are free to use

Slots are set free when the action is finished

I can't use regular semaphore because it's impossible to set semaphore negative initial value or decrement the value until it becomes negative

So I need "semaphore" with the function WaitMultiple(int N), which does smth like "wait until resource value reaches N"

Any suggestions how I can solve it? I prefer thread block/release, I can not afford active loops


I'm not sure that semaphores are useful here.

I think you can do this with a thread pool and some code in a CS/mutex protected section. Put the actions in a collection, (list/queue/stack, whatever is best for your dispatching algorithm), and initialize a slot-count. Then, and whenever slots are freed by completing actions, enter the CS and decide which action/s to execute given the current slot-count. Submit these actions to a thread pool, decrement the slot-count appropriately and exit the CS.

'Slot-count' could be a simple integer or a collection count of some complex class - doesn't really matter.

Whenever the free slot count increases, you have to make a decision about which action to dispatch onto the threadpool. You will need some sort of algorithm since it seems possible that a slot-release may make it possible to run more than one action - do you maybe run the action with the highest slot-requirement first?

I don't see any need for a separate dispatcher thread and certainly not any CPU loops! I fear that any solution based on thread/s trying to accumulate a slot target by waiting on some synchro object for available slots would be a deadlock risk - many threads could be stuck with partial slot counts and so prevent forward progress. Also, you would be unable to tweak the algorithm to, say, prevent actions with a high slot-requirement being starved.

You can implement your own fast semaphore with the possibility of a negative count. For example, have a class MySemaphore like this:

public class MySemaphore
    private int size; // number of occupied resources
    private readonly int capacity; // total capacity

    public MySemaphore(int size, int capacity)
        this.size = size;
        this.capacity = capacity;

    public void Lock(int count) // acquire "count" resources
            while(capacity - size < count)
            size += count;

    public void Unlock(int count) // release "count" resources
            size -= count;

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